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there has been no ground for complaint, but they have kept all
the rules made by their Rector and their instructors, and have
attended without fail the lectures of Zenodotus in the Ptolemaeum
and the Lyceum, as also those of all the other teachers of philoso-
phy in the Lyceum and the Academy ; and have mounted guard
in good order at the popular assemblies, and have gone out to
meet our Roman friends and benefactors on their visits, and have
marched out under arms to the Athenian frontiers and made
themselves acquainted with the country and the roads, and have
gone out to Marathon and offered their garlands and said prayers
at the shrine of the heroes who died fighting for their country's
freedom;—arid whereas they have lived in friendly harmony all
the year, and have passed their tests in the Senate House as the law
requires, and in all other matters have conducted themselves
with all propriety—to show the wish of the Senate and the
People to honour them for their merits and obedience to the
laws and to their Rector, in their first year of adult life, the
Senate is agreed to instruct the President of the next assembly
following, to lay before the People for approval the resolution
of the Senate to pass an honorary vote in praise of the ephebi
of last year, and to present them with a golden crown for their
constant piety and discipline and public spirit, and to compliment
their instructors, their trainer Timon and the fencing master
Satyrus and the marksman Nicander and the bowman Asclepiades
and Calchedon the instructor in the catapults, and the attendants,
and to award a crown of leaves to each*"*

The cphcbic college is sometimes said to have been one of
the institutions which developed into the " university" of
Athens; but that exaggerates the part it played in the later
organisation of education in Athens* The origin of the " univer-
sity/* such us it was, is rather to be found in the schools of
philosophy which the ephebi attended in company with a great
many others who were not enrolled among them. For the
beginnings of these schools we have to go back to Plato, After
the death of Socrates, as we have seen, he gathered a band of
disciples around him whom he taught both in his own garden and
in the gymnasium, called the Academy, which was beside it. At
first his students seem to have been mainly lads from fifteen to

* Abridged from A* Dumont, Essai $w VGpMUe Attique> a$ quoted and
tmikted In W, W. Coped, University Lijf* in Ancient Athem, pp, ax~33*